World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Samurai bond

Article Id: WHEBN0031297121
Reproduction Date:

Title: Samurai bond  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Bond (finance)
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Samurai bond

A samurai bond is a yen-denominated bond issued in Tokyo by non-Japanese companies, and is subject to Japanese regulations.[1] These bonds provide the issuer with an access to Japanese capital, which can be used for local investments or for financing operations outside Japan.[2] Foreign borrowers may want to issue in Samurai market to hedge against foreign currency exchange risk.[3] Another intention may be simultaneously exchanging the issue into another currency, in order to take advantage of lower costs.[3] Lower costs may result from investor preferences that differ across segmented markets or from temporary market conditions that differentially affect the swaps and bond markets.[3]


Samurai Bond Market was opened in 1970 when the Japanese Ministry of Finance authorized supranational and highly rated foreign government entities to issue Samurai bonds within certain size and maturity restrictions.[4] The market opened due to growing Japanese foreign currency reserves during late 60’s. The exchange rate of the yen at that time was fixed at 360 yen per US dollar. It was revalued to 308 yen in 1971 and moved to a floating rate system in February 1973.[5] To discourage foreign exchange pressure, the Japanese government decided to open capital market allowing foreign entities to issue yen-denominated bonds. However, at the time the market opened, only governmental entities could issue bonds. The Blue chip corporations were allowed to issue Samurai bond later in 1978.[2]

The Asian Development Bank issued the first Samurai bond in November 1970. The issue amount was 6 billion yen with a 7-year maturity, and the bond was accepted very well in the market.[5] At first, Asian Development Bank and other high credit supranational issuers were given an access priority to the market.[5] To control stream of issuance, these special criteria were established. Those who were unable to meet eligibility criteria could finance yen through yen-denominated private placement bonds. They were permitted to target a restricted number of institutional investments, and terms and liquidity were under close control. In 1972 the first non-Japanese 10 billion yen bond was issued by Australia. In 1979, Sears made the first corporate Samurai bond issue for 20 billion yen.[5] At that time, Samurai market gradually became accessible to more issuers through the alleviation of eligibility criteria, which now required minimum credit ratings, and through liberalization of new kinds of bonds.[5] In addition, Samurai bonds provided an opportunity of issuing in two different currencies, as well as interest and principal were paid in ether of these currencies.

Liquidation of rating requirement

In 1984, a liberalization step was taken to reduce the required minimum credit rating from double A to single A. In 1991, the minimum rating requirement for foreign governments, central banks, and foreign government-guaranteed institutions was lowered to triple-B.[6] In January 1996, Samurai market eliminated the minimum requirement for credit rating, increasing private sector share of the Samurai bond market.[3]

Required standards

The eligibility criteria for issuing Samurai bonds were not loosened until April 1985.[6] When examining applications from potential samurai issuers, the Ministry of Finance considered the tendency of the Japanese capital account balance and the liquidity in the country’s economy. For the actual issuance of Samurai bonds, the Japanese Ministry of Finance set a quota per quarter year, and employed a queue system.[6] Borrowers, if they agreed upon the terms of underwriting, entered the quota by rotation from the top of the queue.[3] In 1998, the Ministry of Finance’s close regulatory control was annulled.

Deregulation of Samurai market

Year Deregulation measure Remarks Issues Volume (Yen bil)[5]
1970 Supranational issuance allowed Asian Development Bank the first Samurai bond 1 6
1972 Sovereign issuance allowed Yen private placements by non- residents started Australia becomes first sovereign Samurai issuer, Mexico and Brazil debut in 1973 6 85
1979 Corporate issuance starts Sears Overseas Finance NV issues the first corporate Samurai bond 16 333
1984 Public issuer rating criteria broadened to single A Bank of China issues debut Samurai 37 915
1986 Financial parameters and single A rating as criteria for private issuers Samurai issuance decreases as Euroyen issuance is widely liberalized 21 590
1988 Introduction of shelf registration First issue by Greece, later to become one of the largest sovereign borrowers 22 635
1989 First reverse dual currency Samurai issue Denmark issued the first reverse dual Samurai Bond - main forex exposure 34-structure to date (currently as PRDC) 47 1,126
1991 Sovereigns broadened to BBB, FRN issuance First BBB-rated sovereign issue takes place in 1994 (Central Bank of Tunisia) 34 681
1992 Public sector broadened to BBB Ankara Municipality issues first BBB public sector Samurai 53 1,700
1994 Private sector issuers broadened to BBB PEMEX issues first BBB rated corporate Samurai 55 1,163
1995 First dual currency Samurai issue Popularity of dual currency structure among retail investors as yen depreciates 35 1,115
1996 Lifting of issuance eligibility criteria, but financial institutions remain shut from the market Brazil issues the first sub-investment grade bond in the Samurai market; market on the way to record in 1996 153 3,874
1996 Foreign non-banks allowed to issue for purposes other than lending FMCC issues Samurai bond as the first non-bank issuer
1997 Samurai issuance by overseas commercial banks liberated Citicorp becomes first commercial bank to issue a Samurai 85 2,123
1998 Issuance of Nikkei-linked Samurai bonds liberalized No issuance so far 14 205
1999 Foreign non-bankers allowed to issue for general finance purposes Associates debut in 1999, Household Finance - 7 issues since 2000 10 661
2003 Single A and higher rated foreign non-sovereigns not listed at TSE eligible for shelf registration Several corporations have already taken advantage of the measure 27 641

Advantages and disadvantages of Samurai bonds for investors


  • Samurai bonds provide access to a diversified and deep pool of capital.
  • Samurai bonds have relatively lower interest rates.
  • Japanese institutional investors can easily invest in Samurai bonds because they are issued in Japan.
  • Samurai bonds do not have to be left in the custody of securities companies or other institutions.[2]
  • As for Japanese institutional investors, foreign firms are very popular because of their high name recognition and good investment rating; as many of these funds are very conservative, they prefer to invest in larger companies with international presence.[2]
  • Japanese market is not subject to the same variations and market swings as the U.S. and European markets, giving companies an alternative financing source during economic downturns.[2]


  • Samurai bond market has high tax rates and an unclear fiscal environment.
  • Lack of a constant policy remains a serious concern of US-based companies.[2]
  • Lack of flexibility of issuance terms and conditions that create restrictions to use bonds.
  • Companies that have issued samurai bonds have found high administrative burdens placed upon issuing companies.[2]
  • Complicated issuing procedures and high taxes have made Samurai bond market less attractive than European markets, and experience slow growth.[2]

See also


  1. ^ "Samurai bond". Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "What is Samurai Bond". 2011-12-01. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Packer, F.; Reynolds, E. (1997). "The Samurai bond market". Current Issues in Economics & Finance (8): 1–6. 
  4. ^ Brian, J. T. (n.d.). The international handbook of corporate finance. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Nishi, A.; Vergus (n.d.). Asian bond issues in Tokyo: history, structure and prospects. 
  6. ^ a b c Hoschka, T. C. (February 2005). "Developing the Market for Foreign Issuers: Lessons from Asia". No. 63. ERD Working Paper. 

Further reading

Nishi, F.; Vergus, A. (n.d.). "Asian bond issues in Tokyo: history, structure and prospects.". 

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from National Public Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.