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Doc-dynamics in a Small Headwater Catchment as Driven by Redox Flu...

By: K.-h. Knorr

Description: Limnological Research Station and Department of Hydrology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports from many catchments in Europe and North-America are steadily increasing. Several studies have sought to explain this observation. As possible causes, a decrease in acid rain or sulfate deposition, concomitant reductions in ionic strength and increasing temperatures were identified. DOC often originate...

Worrall, F. and Burt, T. P.: Trends in DOC concentration in Great Britain, J. Hydrol., 346, 81–92, 2007.; Austnes, K., Evans, C., Eliot-Laize, C., Naden, P., and Old, G.: Effects of storm events on mobilisation and in-stream processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a welsh peatland catchment, Biogeochemistry, 99, 157–173, doi:10.1007/s10533-009-9399-4, 2010.; Biester, H., Hermanns, Y.-M., and Cortizas, A. M.:...

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Evaluation of a Plot Scale Methane Emission Model at the Ecosystem...

By: J. Van Huissteden; Y. Mi; L. Belelli-marchesini; A. J. Dolman; F. J. W. Parmentier; G. Schaepman-strub; T. C. Maximov; G. Fratini; A. Budishchev; A. Gallagher

Description: Earth and Climate Cluster, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Most plot-scale methane emission models – of which many have been developed in the recent past – are validated using data collected with the closed-chamber technique. This method, however, suffers from a low spatial representativeness and a poor temporal resolution. Also, during a chamber-flux measurement the ...

Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, Ü., Moncrieff, J., Foken, T., Kowalski, A. S., Martin, P. H., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, Ch., Clement, R., Elbers, J., Granier, A., Grünwald, T., Morgenstern, K., Pilegaard, K., Rebmann C., Snijders, W., Valentini, R., and Vesala, T.: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: the EUROFLUX methodology., Adv. Ecol. Res., 30, 113–175, 2000.; Aubinet, M., Vesala, T., and Papale, D.: Eddy covariance: a practic...

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The Carbon Balance of South America: Status, Decadal Trends and Ma...

By: R. Jackson; T. Feldpausch; J. Miller; M. Lomas; Y. Malhi; K. Zhao; P. Peylin; T. Baker; R. J. W. Brienen; L. Gatti; J.-p. Ometto; L. Aragão; H. Ribeiro Da Rocha; J. Lloyd; B. Poulter; S. Zaehle; O. Phillips; S. Sitch; J.-l. Guyot; M. Gloor; C. Huntingford; R. Houghton

Description: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Woodhouse Lane, LS9 2JT, Leeds, UK. We attempt to summarize the carbon budget of South America and relate it to its dominant controls: population and economic growth, changes in land use practices and a changing atmospheric environment and climate. Flux estimation methods which we consider sufficiently reliable are fossil fuel emission inventories, biometric analysis of old-growth rainforests, estimation of c...

Achard, F., Eva, H. D., Stibig, H.-J., Mayaux, P., Gallego, J., Richards, T., and Malingreau, J.-P.: Determination of deforestation rates of the World's humid tropical forests, Science, 297, 999–1002, doi:10.1126/science.1070656, 2002.; Barbosa, R. I. and Fearnside, P. M.: Pasture burning in Amazonia: dynamics of residual biomass and the storage and release of aboveground carbon, J. Geophys., Res., 101(D20), 25847–258...

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Contribution of Recent Plant Photosynthates of Eriophorum Vaginatu...

By: Y. Kuzyakov; M. Dorodnikov; M. Wilmking; K.-h. Knorr

Description: Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, University of Greifswald, Grimmer Str. 88, 17487 Greifswald, Germany. Contribution of recent photosynthates to methanogenesis and plant-mediated methane (CH4) transport were studied on two dominating vascular plant species – Eriophorum vaginatum and Scheuchzeria palustris – at three microform types (hummocks, lawns and hollows) of a boreal natural minerogenic, oligotrophic fen in Eastern ...

Chanton, J. P. and Dacey, J. W. H.: Effects of vegetation on methane flux, reservoirs, and carbon isotopic composition, edited by: Sharkey, T. D., Holland, E. A., and Mooney, H. A.: Trace Gas Emissions by Plants, Academic Press, SanDiego, 65–92, 1991.; Chanton, J. P., Bauer, J. E., Glaser, P. A., Siegel, D. I., Kelley, C. A., Tyler, S. C., Romanowicz, E. H., and Lazrus, A.: Radiocarbon evidence for the substrates supporting methane formation within northern Minnesota pea...

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Soil-atmosphere Exchange of Nitrous Oxide, Methane and Carbon Diox...

By: J. B. Carmo; M. Keller; S. C. Martins; S. A. Vieira; L. A. Martinelli; H. T. Z. Couto; M. C. Piccolo; E. Sousa Neto; C. A. Joly; L. F. Alves; P. Camargo

Description: Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, CENA-USP, Laboratório de Ecologia Isotópica, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)...

Born, M., Door, H. and Levin, I.: Methane consumption in aerated soils of the temperature zone, Tellus A, 42, 2–8, 1990.; Alves, L. F., Vieira, S. A, Scaranello, M. A., Camargo, P. B., Santos, F. A. M., Joly, C. A., and Martinelli, L. A..: Forest structure and live aboveground biomass along an elevational gradient of tropical moist forest (Brazil), Forest Ecol. Manag., in press, doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2010.05.023, 2010.; Beare, M. H., Gregorich, E. G., and St-Georges, P.: ...

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Nonlinear Thermal and Moisture Dynamics of High Arctic Wetland Pol...

By: E. Lévesque; D. Fortier; E. Godin

Description: Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Low-centre polygonal terrain developing within gentle sloping surfaces and lowlands in the high Arctic have a potential to retain snowmelt water in their bowl-shaped centre and as such are considered high latitude wetlands. Such wetlands in the continuous permafrost regions have an important ecological role in an otherwise generally arid region. In the valley of the glacier C-79 on Bylot Island (N...

Allard, M.: Geomorphological changes and permafrost dynamics: key factors in changing arctic ecosystems. An example from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, Geosci. Can., 23, 205–212, available at: https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/GC/article/viewArticle/3916, 1996.; Allard, M. and Kasper, J. N.: Temperature conditions for ice wedge cracking: field measurements from Salluit, northern Québec, in:...

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Modelling Lai at a Regional Scale with Isba-a-gs: Comparison with ...

By: P. Le Moigne; S. Lafont; A. Brut; L. Jarlan; J.-c. Calvet; A.-l. Gibelin; J.-f. Soussana; C. Rüdiger; J.-l. Roujean; C. Albergel; K. Klumpp

Description: CNRM/GAME (Météo-France, CNRS), Toulouse, France. A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France) is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI) in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001–2003). A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the inter-annual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is as...

Allard, V., Soussana, J.-F., Falcimagne, R., Berbigier, P., Bonnefond, J. M., Ceschia, E., D'hour, P., Hénault, C., Laville, P., Martin, C., and Pinarès-Patino, C. : The role of grazing management for the net biome productivity and greenhouse gas budget (CO2, N2O and CH4) of semi-natural grassland, Agric. Ecosys. Environ., 121, 47–58, doi:10.1016/j.agee.2006.12.004, 2007.; Alessandri, A., Gualdi, S., Polcher, J., and Navarra, A.: Effects ...

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90Sr and 89Sr in Seawater Off Japan as a Consequence of the Fukush...

By: K. O. Buesseler; J. Garcia-orellana; P. Masqué; N. Casacuberta; R. Garcia-tenorio

Description: Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Barcelona), Spain. The impact of the earthquake and tsunami in the east coast of Japan in 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity to the environment. Although several works were devo...

Bailly du Bois, P., Laguionie, P., Boust, D., Korsakissok, I., and Didier, D.: Estimation of marine source-term following Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 114, 2–9, 2012.; Buesseler, K. O., Aoyama, M., and Fukasawa, M.: Impacts of the Fukushima nuclear power plants on marine radioactivity, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 9931–9935, 2011.; Hisamatsu, S.: Environmental impacts of the Fukushima accident, special issue, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 111, 1–126, 2...

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Historical Records of Eutrophication in Changjiang (Yangtze) River...

By: Z. Yu; X. Song; D. Liu; F. Cheng

Description: Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 266071 Qingdao, China. Two sediment cores from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea were collected and studied for eutrophication history using paleoecological records of environmental changes over the last century. A multiproxy approach by using biological and geochemical analyses revealed chang...

Anderson, N. J. and Vos, P.: Learning from the past: diatoms as palaeoecological indicators of changes in marine environments, Neth. J. Aquat. Ecol., 26, 19–30, 1992.; Andrén, E.: Changes in the composition of the diatom flora during the last century indicate increased eutrophication of the Oder estuary, South-western Baltic Sea, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 48, 665–676, 1999.; Appleby, P. G. and Oldfield, F.: The calculation of lead-210 dates assuming a constant rate of sup...

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Trimethylamine Emissions in Animal Husbandry : Volume 11, Issue 5 ...

By: J. Sintermann; M. Kajos; M. Jocher; A. Bracher; D. Johnson; T. Ruuskanen; S. Schallhardt; A. Münger; A. Neftel

Description: Agroscope ISS, Zurich, Switzerland. Degradation of plant material by animals is an important transformation pathway in the nitrogen (N) cycle. During the involved processes, volatile reduced alkaline nitrogen compounds, mainly ammonia (NH3) and aliphatic amines such as trimethylamine (TMA), are formed. Today, animal husbandry is estimated to constitute a main source of aliphatic amines into the atmosphere with TMA being the main emitted co...

Al-Waiz, M., Mitchell, S. C., Idle, J. R., and Smith, R. L.: The relative importance of N-oxidation and N-demethylation in the metabolism of trimethylamine in man, Toxicology, 43, 117–121, 1987.; Andreae, M. O.: The aerosol nucleation puzzle, Science, 339, 911–912, 2013.; Bain, M. A., Fornasini, G., and Evans, A. M.: Trimethylamine: metabolic, pharmacokinetic and safety aspects, Curr. Drug Metab., 227–240, 2005.; Almeida, J., Schobesberger, S., Kürten, A., Ortega, I. K.,...

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On the Impact of Atmospheric Waves on Fluxes and Turbulence Statis...

By: C. J. Nappo; L. B. M. Pires; M. Y. Leclerc; H. F. Duarte; M. J. Parker; D. J. Durden; G. Zhang; R. J. Kurzeja

Description: The University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223, USA. The interpretation of flux measurements in the nocturnal stable boundary layer is typically fraught with difficulties. This paper reports on how the presence of waves in a time series leads to an overestimation of turbulence statistics and errors in turbulent flux calculations. Using time series of the pressure signal from a microbarograph, the presence of waves at a flux measurement site near Aike...

Aubinet, M.: Eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements in nocturnal conditions: an analysis of the problem, Ecol. Appl., 18, 1368–1378, 2008.; Aubinet, M.: Direct CO2 advection measurements and the night flux problem, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 150, 651–654, 2010.; Balsley B., Fritts, D., Frehlich, R., Jones, R. M., Vadas, S., and Coulter, R.: Up-gully flow in the great plains region: a mechanism for perturbing the nighttime lower atmosphere?, Geophys. Res....

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Technical Note: Large Overestimation of PCo2 Calculated from Ph an...

By: F. Darchambeau; C. R. Teodoru; S. Bouillon; F. Tamooh; A. V. Borges; L. Deirmendjian; F. O. Omengo; P. Polsenaere; G. Abril; T. R. Marwick; N. Geeraert

Description: Laboratoire EPOC, Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, France. Inland waters have been recognized as a~significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere at the global scale. Fluxes of CO2 between aquatic systems and the atmosphere are calculated from the gas transfer velocity and the water-air gradient of the partial pressure of CO2 (p

Abril, G., Guérin, F., Richard, S., Delmas, R., Galy-Lacaux, C., Gosse, P., Tremblay, A., Varfalvy, L., Dos Santos, M. A., and Matvienko, B.: Carbon dioxide and methane emissions and the carbon budget of a 10-year old tropical reservoir (Petit-Saut, French Guiana), Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, GB4007, doi:10.1029/2005GB002457, 2005.; Abril, G., Richard, S., and Guérin, F.: In-situ measurements of dissolved gases (CO2...

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Marine Geochemical Data Assimilation in an Efficient Earth System ...

By: J. C. Hargreaves; R. Marsh; N. R. Edwards; J. D. Annan; T. M. Lenton; A. Yool; A. Ridgwell; A. Watson

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, USA. We have extended the 3-D ocean based Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system model'' (GENIE-1) to help understand the role of ocean biogeochemistry and marine sediments in the long-term'' (~100 to 100 000 year) regulation of atmospheric CO2, and the importance of feedbacks between CO2 and climate. Here we describe the ocean carbon cycle, which i...

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Response of Nodularia Spumigena to PCo2 – Part 2: Exudation and Ex...

By: N. Wannicke; J. Unger; M. Nausch; M. Voss; S. Endres; A. Engel

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena has a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) by production and release of a...

Alldredge, A. L., Passow, U., and Logan, B. E.: The abundance and significance of a class of large transparent organic particles in the ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 40, 1131–1140, 1993.; Azam, F., Fenchel, T., Field, J. G., Gray, J. S., Meyer-Reil, L. A., and Thingstad, F.: The ecological role of water-column microbes in the sea, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 257–263, 1983.; Beardall, J., Young, E., and Roberts, S.: Approaches for determining phytoplankton nutrient limitation, A...

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Summer Upwelling at the Boknis Eck Time Series Station (1982 to 20...

By: J. Fischer; K. Bumke; T. Liblik; J. Karstensen; G. Krahmann

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Two consecutive summer upwelling events, each lasting for less than 24 h, where surveyed in high temporal and vertical resolution at the Boknis Eck time series station (BE) in the western Belt Sea (Baltic Sea) in summer 2010 with an autonomous glider. Driven only by moderate offshore winds, both events resulted in strong cooling of surface waters (up to 5 K). On...

Bange, H. W., Bergmann, K., Hansen, H. P., Kock, A., Koppe, R., Malien, F., and Ostrau, C.: Dissolved methane during hypoxic events at the Boknis Eck time series station (Eckernförde Bay, SW Baltic Sea), Biogeosciences, 7, 1279–1284, 10.5194/bg-7-1279-2010, 2010.; Bednorz, E., Polrolniczak, M., and Czernecki, B.: Synoptic conditions governing upwelling along the Polish Baltic coast, Oceanologia, 55, 76...

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The Significance of Organic Carbon and Nutrient Export from Peatla...

By: C. Arlaud; H. Flowers; C. Bryant; S. McFarlane; S. Waldron

Description: Department of Geographical and Earth Sciences, Univ. of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. The terrestrial-aquatic interface is a crucial environment in which to consider the fate of exported terrestrial carbon in the aquatic system. To a large extent the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may be controlled by nutrient availability. However, peat-dominated headwater catchments are normally considered of low nutrient status and thus there is little data on...

Baker, A., Cumberland, S., and Hudson, N.: Dissolved and total organic and inorganic carbon in some british rivers, Area, P10L25, doi:10.1111/j.1475-4762.2007.00780.x, 2007.; Billett, M., Garnett, M., and Harvey, F.: UK peatland streams release old carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and young dissolved organic carbon to rivers, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, 1–6, doi:10.1029/2007GL031797, 2007.; Billett, M. F., Palmer, S. M., Hope, D., Deacon, C., Storeton-West, R., Hargreaves, ...

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Exchange of Carbonyl Sulfide (Cos) Between the Atmosphere and Vari...

By: C. Geng; Y. Zhang; Y. Mu; J. Liu; H. Wu

Description: Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Using a dynamic enclosure, the exchange fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between the atmosphere and 18 soils from 10 provinces in China were investigated. The emission or uptake of COS from the soils was highly dependent on the soil type, soil temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric COS mixing ratio. In general, with the only exception being p...

Kesselmeier, J., Meixner, F. X., Hofmann, U., Ajavon, A., Leimbach, S., and Andreae, M. O.: Reduced sulfur compound exchange between the atmosphere and tropical tree species in southern Cameroon, Biogeochemisty, 23, 23–45, doi:10.1007/BF00002921, 1993.; Kesselmeier, J., Teusch, N., and Kuhn, U.: Controlling variables for the uptake of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide by soil, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577–11584, doi:10.1029/1999JD900090, 1999.; Khalil, M. A. K. and Rasmussen,...

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An Automated Dynamic Chamber System for Surface Exchange Measureme...

By: F. X. Meixner; A. Nyfeler-brunner; C. Spirig; C. Ammann; L. Pape; K. Hens

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biogeochemistry Department, P.O.Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. We present an automated dynamic chamber system which is optimised for continuous unattended flux measurements of multiple non-reactive and reactive trace gases on grassland ecosystems. Main design features of our system are (a) highly transparent chamber walls consisting of chemically inert material, (b) individual purging flow units for each chamber, and ...

Aeschlimann, U., Nosberger, J., Edwards, P. J., Schneider, M. K., Richter, M., and Blum, H.: Responses of net ecosystem CO2 exchange in managed grassland to long-term CO2 enrichment, N fertilization and plant species, Plant Cell and Environment, 28, 823–833, 2005.; Ammann, C.: On the applicability of relaxed eddy accumulation and common methods for measuring trace gas surface fluxes, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 239 pp., 1998.; Amm...

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Understanding Emissions of Ammonia from Buildings and Application ...

By: M. Kryza; M. Werner; C. Ambelas Skjøth; A. J. Dore

Description: National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, UK. A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analysed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results sug...

Fowler, D.: Regional mass budgets of oxidized and reduced nitrogen and their relative contribution to the N inputs of sensitive ecosystems, Environ. Pollut., 102, 337–342, 1998.; Geels, C., Andersen, H. V., Ambelas Skjøth, C., Christensen, J. H., Ellermann, T., Løfstrøm, P., Gyldenkærne, S., Brandt, J., Hansen, K. M., Frohn, L. M., and Hertel, O.: Improved modelling of atmospheric ammonia over Denmark using the coupled modelling system DAMOS, Biogeosciences, 9, 2625–2647...

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Fueling Primary Productivity: Nutrient Return Pathways from the De...

By: A. Gnanadesikan; J. L. Sarmiento; J. Simeon; J. B. Palter; D. Slater

Description: Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. In the Southern Ocean, mixing and upwelling in the presence of heat and freshwater surface fluxes transform subpycnocline water to lighter densities as part of the upward branch of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). One hypothesized impact of this transformation is the restoration of nutrients to the global pycnocline, without which biological producti...

Anderson, R. F., Ali, S., Bradtmiller, L. I., Nielsen, S. H. H., Fleisher, M. Q., Anderson, B. E., and Burckle, L. H.: Wind-Driven Upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the Deglacial Rise in Atmospheric CO2, Science, 323, 1443–1448, doi:10.1126/science.1167441, 2009.; Archer, D. E., Eshel, G., Winguth, A., Broecker, W., Pierrehumbert, R., Tobis, M., and Jacob, R.: Atmospheric pCO2 sensitivity to the biological pump in the ocean, Global Biogeoch...

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