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An Open and Extensible Framework for Spatially Explicit Land Use C...

By: W. Buytaert; A. Mijic; S. Moulds

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK. Land use change has important consequences for biodiversity and the sustainability of ecosystem services, as well as for global environmental change. Spatially explicit land use change models improve our understanding of the processes driving change and make predictions about the quantity and location of future and past change. Here we present the lulccR package...

Alber, M., Reed, D., and McGlathery, K.: Coastal long term ecological research: introduction to the special issue, Oceanography, 26, 14–17, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2013.40, 2013.; Aldwaik, S. Z. and Pontius, R. G.: Intensity analysis to unify measurements of size and stationarity of land changes by interval, category, and transition, Landscape Urban Plan., 106, 103–114, doi:

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Evaluation of the Carbon Cycle Components in the Norwegian Earth S...

By: M. Bentsen; J. Schwinger; Ø. Seland; J. F. Tjiputra; T. Lorentzen; C. Heinze; D. M. Lawrence; C. Roelandt

Description: University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen, Norway. The recently developed Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) is employed for simulations contributing to the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) experiments and the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5). In this manuscript, we focus on evaluating the ocean and land carbon cycle components of the NorESM, based on the control and hi...

Antonov, J. I., Seidov, D., Boyer, T. P., Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Garcia, H. E., Baranova, O. K., Zweng, M. M., and Johnson, D. R.: World Ocean Atlas 2009, vol. 2: Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 184 pp., 2010.; Assmann, K. M., Bentsen, M., Segschneider, J., and Heinze, C.: An isopycnic ocean carbon cycle model, Geosci. Model Dev., 3, 143–167, doi:

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How Realistic Are Air Quality Hindcasts Driven by Forcings from Cl...

By: J. Arteta; B. Josse; V.-h. Peuch; M. Joly; G. Lacressonnière; V. Marécal; L. Watson; D. Saint Martin; M. Déqué

Description: GAME/CNRM, Météo-France, URA1357, CNRS – Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, 42 av. G.Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France. Predicting how European air quality could evolve over the next decades in the context of changing climate requires the use of climate models to produce results that can be averaged in a climatologically and statistically sound manner. This is a very different approach from the one that is generally used for air quality hi...

Bechtold, P., Bazile, E., Guichard, F., Mascart, P., and Richard, E.: A mass-flux convection scheme for regional and global models, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 869–886, 2001.; Bessagnet, B., Hodzic, A., Vautard, R., Beekmann, M., Cheinet, S., Honoré, C., Liousse, C., and Rou\il, L.: Aerosol modeling with {CHIMERE}-preliminary evaluation at the continental scale, Atmos. Environ., 38, 2803–2817, 2004.; Bousserez, N., Attié, J.-L., Peuch, V.-H., Michou, M., Pfister, G., E...

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Famous, Faster: Using Parallel Computing Techniques to Accelerate...

By: A. Beurivé; O. Boucher; L. Steels; F. Laguzet; P. Hanappe; N. Bellouin; M. Allen; Y. H. Yamazaki; T. Aina

Description: Sony Computer Science Laboratory, Paris, France. We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool to schedule the computation of individual columns on t...

Asanovic, K., Bodik, R., Demmel, J., Keaveny, T., Keutzer, K., Kubiatowicz, J., Morgan, N., Patterson, D., Sen, K., Wawrzynek, J., Wessel, D., and Yelick, K.: A view of the parallel computing landscape, Communications of the ACM, 52, 56–67, doi:10.1145/1562764.1562783, 2009.; Backus, J.: Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style? A Functional Style and Its Algebra of Programs, Communications of the ACM, ...

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Arome-wmed, a Real-time Mesoscale Model Designed for the Hymex Spe...

By: A. Doerenbecher; M. Nuret; C. Jany; F. Pouponneau; É. Bresson; M. Amodei; P. Brousseau; H. Bénichou; M. Kreitz; E. Sevault; N. Fourrié; O. Nuissier

Description: CNRM-GAME, Météo-France and CNRS, Toulouse, France. During autumn 2012 and winter 2013, two special observation periods (SOPs) of the HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX) took place. For the preparatory studies and to support the instrument deployment during the field campaign, a dedicated version of the operational convective-scale Application of Research to Operations at Mesoscale (AROME)-France model was devel...

Amodei, M. and Stein, J.: Deterministic and fuzzy verification methods for a hierarchy of numerical models, Met. Appl., 16, 191–203, 2009.; Bénard, P., Vivoda, J., Mašek, J., Smol\`ikovà, P., Yessad, K., Smith, C., Brožkovà, R., and Geleyn, J.-F.: Dynamical kernel of the Aladin-NH spectral limited area model: revised formulation and sensitivity experiments, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 136, 155–169, 2010.; Bresson, E., Ducrocq, V., Nuissier, O., Ricard, D., and de Saint-Au...

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Simulating Emission and Chemical Evolution of Coarse Sea-salt Part...

By: U. Shankar; P. V. Bhave; C. G. Nolte; K. M. Foley; J. T. Kelly

Description: Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC, USA. Chemical processing of sea-salt particles in coastal environments significantly impacts concentrations of particle components and gas-phase species and has implications for human exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen deposition to sensitive ecosystems. Emission of sea-salt particles ...

Allen, A. G., Harrison, R. M., and Erisman, J. W.: Field-measurements of the dissociation of ammonium-nitrate and ammonium-chloride aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 23(7), 1591–1599, 1989.; Arnold, J. R., Hartsell, B. E., Luke, W. T., Ullah, S. M. R., Dasgupta, P. K., Huey, L. G., and Tate, P.: Field test of four methods for gas-phase ambient nitric acid, Atmos. Environ., 41(20), 4210–4226, 2007.; Asgharian, B., Hoffman, W., and Bergmann, R.: Particle deposition in a multiple-...

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Δ18O Water Isotope in the ILoveclim Model (Version 1.0) – Part 1: ...

By: D. M. Roche

Description: Earth and Climate Cluster, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. A new 18O stable water isotope scheme is developed for three components of the iLOVECLIM coupled climate model: atmospheric, oceanic and land surface. The equations required to reproduce the fractionation of stable water isotopes in the simplified atmospheric model ECBilt are developed consistently with the moisture s...

Majoube, M.: Fractionnement en oxygène 18 entre l'eau et sa vapeur, Journal de Chimie Physique, 68, 1423–1436, 1971b.; Mathieu, R. and Bariac, T.: A numerical model for the simulation of stable isotope profiles in drying soils, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12685–12696, 1996.; Cappa, C. D., Hendricks, M. B., DePaolo, D. J., and Cohen, R. C.: Isotopic fractionation of water during evaporation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4525, doi:10.102...

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Icosahedral Shallow Water Model (Icoswm): Results of Shallow Water...

By: D. Majewski; J. Förstner; P. Korn; T. Heinze; P. Rípodas; G. Zängl; L. Kornblueh; L. Bonaventura; M. Giorgetta; H. Wan; A. Gassmann

Description: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany. The Icosahedral Shallow Water Model (ICOSWM) has been a first step in the development of the ICON (acronym for ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic) models. ICON is a joint project of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg (MPI-M) and Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) for the development of new unified general circulation models for climate modeling and numerical weather forecasting on global or regional domains...

Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 18–136, 1981.; Asselin, R.: Frequency filter for time integrations, Mon. Weather Rev., 100, 487–490, 1972.; Baumgardner, J. and Frederickson, P.: Icosahedral discretization of the two-sphere, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22, 1107–1115, 1985.; Bonaventura, L.: Development of the ICON dynamical core: modeling strategies and preliminary results, in:...

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Development of a Variational Flux Inversion System (Invicat V1.0) ...

By: F. Chevallier; M. Gloor; M. P. Chipperfield; C. Wilson

Description: School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. We present a new variational inverse transport model, named INVICAT (v1.0), which is based on the global chemical transport model TOMCAT, and a new corresponding adjoint transport model, ATOMCAT. The adjoint model is constructed through manually derived discrete adjoint algorithms, and includes subroutines governing advection, convection and boundary layer mixing, all of which are linear in the T...

Amsallem, D., Zahr, M., Choi, Y., and Farhat, C.: Design Optimization Using Hyper-Reduced-Order Models, Technical report, Stanford University, 2013.; Andersson, E., Fisher, M., Munro, R., and McNally, A.: Diagnosis of background errors for radiances and other observable quantities in a variational data assimilation scheme, and the explanation of a case of poor convergence, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 1455–1472, 2000.; Arnold, S. R., Chipperfield, M. P., and Blitz, M. A...

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Plasim-entsem V1.0: a Spatio-temporal Emulator of Future Climate C...

By: M. Labriet; N. R. Edwards; F. Babonneau; P. B. Holden; P. H. Garthwaite; A. Kanudia; K. Fraedrich; F. Lunkeit; E. Kirk

Description: Environment, Earth and Ecosystems, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK. Many applications in the evaluation of climate impacts and environmental policy require detailed spatio-temporal projections of future climate. To capture feedbacks from impacted natural or socio-economic systems requires interactive two-way coupling, but this is generally computationally infeasible with even moderately complex general circulation models (GCM...

Annan, J. D., Lunt, D. J., Hargreaves, J. C., and Valdes, P. J.: Parameter estimation in an atmospheric GCM using the Ensemble Kalman Filter, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 12, 363–371, doi:10.5194/npg-12-363-2005, 2005.; Baumert, K. and Selman, M.: Heating and cooling degree days, World Resource Institute, 2003.; Beaumont, M. A., Zhang, W., and Balding, D. J.: Approximate Bayesian computation in population genetics, Gen...

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Representing Life in the Earth System with Soil Microbial Function...

By: C. M. Kallenbach; W. R. Wieder; G. B. Bonan; P. G. Taylor; A. S. Grandy

Description: Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA. Projecting biogeochemical responses to global environmental change requires multi-scaled perspectives that consider organismal diversity, ecosystem processes, and global fluxes. However, microbes, the drivers of soil organic matter decomposition and stabilization, remain notably absent from models used to project carbon (C) cycle–climate feedbacks. We used a...

Adair, E. C., Parton, W. J., Del Grosso, S. J., Silver, W. L., Harmon, M. E., Hall, S. A., Burkes, I. C., and Hart, S. C.: Simple three-pool model accurately describes patterns of long-term litter decomposition in diverse climates, Global Change Biol., 14, 2636–2660, 2008.; Allison, S. D.: A trait-based approach for modelling microbial litter decomposition, Ecol. Lett., 15, 1058–1070, 2012.; Allison, S. D., Wallenstein, M. D., and Bradford, M. A.: Soil-carbon response to...

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Ecoclimap-ii/Europe: a Twofold Database of Ecosystems and Surface ...

By: P. Le Moigne; V. Masson; A. T. Kaptué Tchuenté; S. Faroux; E. Martin; J.-l. Roujean

Description: CNRM-GAME (Météo France, CNRS), UMR3589, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse CEDEX, France. The overall objective of the present study is to introduce the new ECOCLIMAP-II database for Europe, which is an upgrade for this region of the former initiative, ECOCLIMAP-I, already implemented at global scale. The ECOCLIMAP programme is a dual database at 1 km resolution that includes an ecosystem classification and a coherent set of land surface paramet...

Bicheron, P., Leroy, M., Brockmann, C., Krämer, U., Miras, B., Huc, M., Nino, F., Defourny, P., Vancutsem, C., Arino, O., Ranéra, F., Petit, D., Amberg, V., Berthelot, B., and Gross, D.: GLOBCOVER: a 300 m global land cover product for 2005 using ENVISAT/MERIS time series, Proceedings of the Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing Symposium, Valencia, 2006.; Bonan, G., Levis, S., Sitch, S., Vertenstein, M., and Oleson, K.: A dynamic global vegetation model for use...

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The Gewex Landflux Project: Evaluation of Model Evaporation Using ...

By: D. G. Miralles; C. Jimenez; E. F. Wood; A. Ershadi; M. F. McCabe; D. Michel

Description: Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international e...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P. P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P., and Nelkin, E.: The version-2 global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Allen, R. G.: Using the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient method over an irrigated region as part of an evapotranspiration intercomparison study, J...

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Simulations and Parameterisation of Shallow Volcanic Plumes of Pit...

By: A. Di Muro; F. Gheusi; C. Mari; S. G. Sivia

Description: Laboratoire d'Aérologie (LA), University of Toulouse, CNRS (UMR5560), Toulouse, France. In mesoscale models (resolution ~ 1 km) used for regional dispersion of pollution plumes the volcanic heat sources and emissions of gases and aerosols, as well as the induced atmospheric convective motions, are all sub-grid-scale processes (mostly true for weak effusive eruptions) which need to be parameterised. We propose a modified formulation of the EDMF scheme (ed...

Allard, P., La Spina, A., Tamburello, G., Aiuppa, A., Burton, M., Di Muro, A., and Staudacher, T.: First measurements of magmatic gas composition and fluxes during an eruption (October 2010) of Piton de la Fournaise hot spot volcano, La Réunion island, Geophys. Res. Abstr., EGU2011-13182, Oral Presentation, EGU General Assembly 2011, Vienna, Austria, 2011.; Bechtold, P., Bazile, E., Guichard, F., Mascart, P., and Richard, E.: A mass-flux convection scheme for regional an...

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Numerical Simulations of Oceanic Oxygen Cycling in the Famous Eart...

By: I. J. Totterdell; P. R. Halloran; P. J. Valdes; J. H. T. Williams

Description: BRIDGE, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK. Addition and validation of an oxygen cycle to the ocean component of the FAMOUS climate model are described. At the surface, FAMOUS overestimates northern hemisphere oxygen concentrations whereas, at depth, the southern hemisphere values are too low. Surface validation is carried out with respect to HadGEM2-ES where, although good agreement is generally found, discrepa...

Peña, M. A., Katsev, S., Oguz, T., and Gilbert, D.: Modeling dissolved oxygen dynamics and hypoxia, Biogeosciences, 7, 933–957, doi:10.5194/bg-7-933-2010, 2010.; Pope, V. D., Gallani, M. L., Rowntree, P. R., and Stratton, R. A.: The impact of new physical parametrizations in the Hadley Centre climate model: HadAM3, Clim. Dynam., 16, 123–146, 2000.; Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, ...

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Updating Sea Spray Aerosol Emissions in the Community Multiscale A...

By: J. O. Bash; J. T. Kelly; B. Gantt

Description: Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC, USA. Sea spray aerosols (SSA) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. Despite their importance, the emission magnitude of SSA remains highly uncertain with global estimates varying by ...

Arnold, J. R., Hartsell, B. E., Luke, W. T., Ullah, S. M. R., Dasgupta, P. K., Huey, L. G., and Tate, P.: Field test of four methods for gas-phase ambient nitric acid, Atmos. Environ., 41, 4210–4226, 2007.; Atkeson, T., Greening, H., and Poor, N.: Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Atmos. Environ., 41, 4163–4164, 2007.; Baker, K. R., Misenis, C., Obland, M. D., Ferrare, R. A., Scarino, A. J., and Kelly, J. T.: Evaluation of surface and upper air fine sc...

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A Technique for Generating Consistent Ice Sheet Initial Conditions...

By: W. H. Lipscomb; W. J. Sacks; J. G. Fyke

Description: Group T-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. A new technique for generating ice sheet preindustrial 1850 initial conditions for coupled ice-sheet/climate models is developed and demonstrated over the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Paleoclimate end-member simulations and ice core data are used to derive continuous surface mass balance fields which are used to force a long transient ice sheet ...

Applegate, P. J., Kirchner, N., Stone, E. J., Keller, K., and Greve, R.: An assessment of key model parametric uncertainties in projections of Greenland Ice Sheet behavior, The Cryosphere, 6, 589–606, doi:10.5194/tc-6-589-2012, 2012.; Arthern, R. and Gudmundsson, G.: Initialization of ice-sheet forecasts viewed as an inverse Robin problem, J. Glaciol., 56, 527–533, 2010.; Bamber, J. L., Layberry, R. L., and Gogineni, S....

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An Approach for Coupling Higher and Lower Levels in Marine Ecosyst...

By: S. MacKinson; J. Aldridge; J. Bruggeman; J. A. Beecham

Description: Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, UK. End to end modelling is an attractive and rapidly developing approach to solve developing strategies in marine systems science and management. However problems remain in the area of data matching and sub-model compatibility. A mechanism and novel interfacing system (Couplerlib) is presented whereby a physical/biogeochemical model (GOTM-ERSEM) that predicts dynamics of the...

Ahrens, R. N. M., Walters, C. J., and Christensen, V.: Foraging arena theory, Fish Fish., 13, 41–59, 2011.; Althauser, L. L.: An Ecopath/Ecosim analysis of an estuarine food web: seasonal energy flow and response to River-flow related perturbations, MSc thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, available at: http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/et...

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The Efficient Global Primitive Equation Climate Model Speedo : Vol...

By: W. Hazeleger; C. A. Severijns

Description: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), de Bilt, The Netherlands. The efficient primitive-equation coupled atmosphere-ocean model SPEEDO is presented. The model includes an interactive sea-ice and land component. SPEEDO is a global earth system model of intermediate complexity. It has a horizontal resolution of T30 (triangular truncation at wave number 30) and 8 vertical layers in the atmosphere, and a horizontal resolution of 2 degrees ...

Hazeleger, W., Severijns, C., Seager, R., and Molteni, F.: Tropical Pacific-driven decadal energy transport variability, J. Climate, 18, 2037–2051, 2005.; Bracco, A., Kucharski, F., Molteni, F., Hazeleger, W., and Severijns, C.: Internal and forced modes of variability in the Indian Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12707, doi:10.1029/2005GL023154, 2005.; Breugem, W. P., Hazeleger, W., and Haarsma, R. J.: Mechanisms of northern tropical Atlantic variability and response t...

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Generalized Background Error Covariance Matrix Model (Gen_be V2.0)...

By: T. Auligné; F. Vandenberghe; D. M. Barker; G. Descombes

Description: National Center for Atmospheric Research/MMM, Boulder, Colorado, USA. The specification of state background error statistics is a key component of data assimilation since it affects the impact observations will have on the analysis. In the variational data assimilation approach, applied in geophysical sciences, the dimensions of the background error covariance matrix (B) are usually too large to be explicitly determined and B needs to b...

Auligné, T., Lorenc, A., Michel, Y., Montmerle, T., Jones, A., Hu, M., and Dudhia, J.: Toward a new cloud analysis and prediction system, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92, 207–210, doi:10.1175/2010BAMS2978.1, 2011.; Austin, J.: Toward the 4-dimensional assimilation of stratospheric chemical-constituents, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2569–2588, 1992.; Bannister, R. N.: A review of forecast error covariance statistics in atmospheric v...

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