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Plos Biology : a Post-burst Afterdepolarization is Mediated by Gro...

By: Alberto Bacci

Description : Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes mGluR1 and mGluR5) regulates neural activity in a variety of ways. In CA1 pyramidal neurons, activation of group I mGluRs eliminates the post-burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and produces an afterdepolarization (ADP) in its place. Here we show that upregulation of Cav2.3 R-type calcium channels is responsible for a component of the ADP lasting several hundred milliseconds. This medium-durati...

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Plos Biology : Complete Mitochondrial Genome and Phylogeny of Plei...

By: David Penny

Description : Phylogenetic relationships between the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), and the Asian (Elephas maximus) and African savanna (Loxodonta africana) elephants remain unresolved. Here, we report the sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome (16,842 base pairs) of a woolly mammoth extracted from permafrost-preserved remains from the Pleistocene epoch—the oldest mitochondrial genome sequence determined to date. We demonstrate that well-preserved...

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Plos Biology : Maternal Xnorrin, a Canonical Wnt Signaling Agonist...

By: Derek L. Stemple

Description : Dorsal–ventral specification in the amphibian embryo is controlled by b-catenin, whose activation in all dorsal cells is dependent on maternal Wnt11. However, it remains unknown whether other maternally secreted factors contribute to bcatenin activation in the dorsal ectoderm. Here, we show that maternal Xenopus Norrin (xNorrin) promotes anterior neural tissue formation in ventralized embryos. Conversely, when xNorrin function is inhibited, early canonical ...

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Plos Biology : Active Control of Acoustic Field-of-view in a Bioso...

By: Leonard Maler

Description : Active-sensing systems abound in nature, but little is known about systematic strategies that are used by these systems to scan the environment. Here, we addressed this question by studying echolocating bats, animals that have the ability to point their biosonar beam to a confined region of space. We trained Egyptian fruit bats to land on a target, under conditions of varying levels of environmental complexity, and measured their echolocation and flight beh...

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Plos Biology : Aging and Gene Expression in the Primate Brain, Vol...

By: Thomas Kirkwood

Description : It is well established that gene expression levels in many organisms change during the aging process, and the advent of DNA microarrays has allowed genome-wide patterns of transcriptional changes associated with aging to be studied in both model organisms and various human tissues. Understanding the effects of aging on gene expression in the human brain is of particular interest, because of its relation to both normal and pathological neurodegeneration. Her...

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Plos Biology : Nup-1 is a Large Coiled-coil Nucleoskeletal Protein...

By: Tom Misteli

Description : A unifying feature of eukaryotic nuclear organization is genome segregation into transcriptionally active euchromatin and transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin. In metazoa, lamin proteins preserve nuclear integrity and higher order heterochromatin organization at the nuclear periphery, but no non-metazoan lamin orthologues have been identified, despite the likely presence of nucleoskeletal elements in many lineages. This suggests a metazoan-specific o...

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Plos Biology : Dna Display I. Sequence-encoded Routing of Dna Popu...

By: Gerald Joyce

Description : Recently reported technologies for DNA-directed organic synthesis and for DNA computing rely on routing DNA populations through complex networks. The reduction of these ideas to practice has been limited by a lack of practical experimental tools. Here we describe a modular design for DNA routing genes, and routing machinery made from oligonucleotides and commercially available chromatography resins. The routing machinery partitions nanomole quantities of DN...

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Plos Biology : Mglb Fills a Gap in Bacterial Polarity and Motility...

By: Caitlin Sedwick
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Plos Biology : Diminished Activity of Rna Polymerase III Selective...

By: Lynne Marshall
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Plos Biology : Design of Wide-spectrum Inhibitors Targeting Corona...

By: Pamela Bjorkman

Description : The genus Coronavirus contains about 25 species of coronaviruses (CoVs), which are important pathogens causing highly prevalent diseases and often severe or fatal in humans and animals. No licensed specific drugs are available to prevent their infection. Different host receptors for cellular entry, poorly conserved structural proteins (antigens), and the high mutation and recombination rates of CoVs pose a significant problem in the development of wide-spec...

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Plos Biology : Current Approaches to the Study of Movement Control...

By: Alla Katsnelson

Description : A major goal in cognitive research, of course, is to directly demonstrate hypothesized mechanisms of cognitive processes in the cellular structure and organization of the brain. Internal models are powerful concepts for understanding how the nervous system breaks down motor tasks. Psychophysical experiments such as those described above can provide a theoretical framework from which to approach neurophysiological investigation, but comparisons of neuronal f...

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Plos Biology : Experiments in Collaboration ; Interdisciplinary Gr...

By: Claire Marris
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Plos Biology : Phagocytic Receptor Ced-1 Initiates a Signaling Pat...

By: Xiaomeng Yu

Description : Apoptotic cells in animals are engulfed by phagocytic cells and subsequently degraded inside phagosomes. To study the mechanisms controlling the degradation of apoptotic cells, we developed time-lapse imaging protocols in developing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and established the temporal order of multiple events during engulfment and phagosome maturation. These include sequential enrichment on phagocytic membranes of phagocytic receptor cell death abnor...

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Plos Biology : School Students as Drosophila Experimenters, Volume 3

By: Faiza Siyad
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Plos Biology : Jagged Controls Arabidopsis Petal Growth and Shape ...

By: Ottoline Leyser

Description : A flowering plant generates many different organs such as leaves, petals, and stamens, each with a particular function and shape. These types of organ are thought to represent variations on a common underlying developmental program. However, it is unclear how this program is modulated under different selective constraints to generate the diversity of forms observed. Here we address this problem by analysing the development of Arabidopsis petals and comparin...

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Plos Biology : the Dna, Volume 8

By: Martin Egli

Description : The production of aberrant RNA (aRNA) is the initial step in several RNAi pathways. How aRNA is produced and specifically recognized by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) to generate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is not clear. We previously showed that in the filamentous fungus Neurospora, the RdRP QDE-1 is required for rDNA-specific aRNA production, suggesting that QDE-1 may be important in aRNA synthesis. Here we show that a recombinant QDE-1 is both an ...

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Plos Biology : Dynamic Assignment and Maintenance of Positional Id...

By: Matthew P. Scott

Description : Morphogens are secreted signalling molecules that act in a graded manner to control the pattern of cellular differentiation in developing tissues. An example is Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which acts in several developing vertebrate tissues, including the central nervous system, to provide positional information during embryonic patterning. Here we address how Shh signalling assigns the positional identities of distinct neuronal subtype progenitors throughout the...

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Plos Biology : Visual Clutter Causes High-magnitude Errors, Volume 4

By: Patrick Bennett

Description : Perceptual decisions are often made in cluttered environments, where a target may be confounded with competing ‘‘distractor’’ stimuli. Although many studies and theoretical treatments have highlighted the effect of distractors on performance, it remains unclear how they affect the quality of perceptual decisions. Here we show that perceptual clutter leads not only to an increase in judgment errors, but also to an increase in perceived signal strength and de...

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Plos Biology : Research Advocacy ; Why Every Scientist Should Part...

By: Elizabeth Marincola
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Plos Biology : Her2 Phosphorylation is Maintained by a Pkb Negativ...

By: Christopher Kemp

Description : Herceptin (trastuzumab) is used in patients with breast cancer who have HER2 (ErbB2)–positive tumours. However, its mechanisms of action and how acquired resistance to Herceptin occurs are still poorly understood. It was previously thought that the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody Herceptin inhibits HER2 signalling, but recent studies have shown that Herceptin does not decrease HER2 phosphorylation. Its failure to abolish HER2 phosphorylation may be a key to w...

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